Monotheism is the belief in one, all-powerful god. Mainstream Colonial religious beliefs and practices are polytheistic, but a minority is monotheistic, including a terrorist group known as Soldiers of the One (STO).
Monotheists believe in a more rigid code of ethics and morality than polytheists. They see the world in "black and white" rather than shades of gray.
Repelled by the hedonism and barbarism of parts of colonial society (in particular the Virtual World), they have adopted as their mission the cleaning up of the vices and sins of the worlds by sharing the word of the One True God. ("Pilot")
In the early years of the monotheistic movement, the STO safeguarded the church, which treated them like saviors. Now that the church is more established, they have become more comfortable with their polytheist neighbors. This has led them to publicly disavow the STO and to treat them poorly, such as making them live in tents in the cold instead of allowing them to reside in the fine and more comfortable rooms of the Retreat. However, regardless of their public stance on the STO, the church still relies heavily on them in secret for covert operations. ("Unvanquished") ("Here Be Dragons")
The Soldiers of the One has a training camp located on Gemenon.
The Monotheist Church is located between two warring factions - the polytheistic rebels on the east and the Hephaestons on the other side. Diego, one of the STO leaders, says this has resulted in a big stalemate. ("Unvanquished")
"It doesn't concern you that kind of absolutist view of the universe? Right and wrong determined solely by a single all-knowing, all-powerful being whose judgement cannot be questioned, and in whose name the most horrendous of acts can be sanctioned without appeal?" ("Pilot")
Furthermore, Brian Markinson, the actor who portrays Duram, comments that, "There are no checks and balances within a monotheistic belief system," alluding to the fact that, within a Polytheist system, multiple gods can check each other's actions.
When the GDD is raiding Zoe Graystone's bedroom, Amanda Graystone asks Agent Duram what he expects to find. He responds that they are looking for evidence of "who brainwashed [Zoe] into believing in a moral dictator called God." ("Gravedancing")
Willow Family Cell
Barnabas Greeley's Cell
- Mother, Blessed Mother
- Obal Ferras, Head of the Conclave
- Lacy Rand, Blessed Mother (by 47YR)
- Odin Sinclair, Head of the Conclave (by 47YR)
STO Training Camp
- Kevin Reikle, Praetor and instructor
- Diego, soldier and instructor
- Odin Sinclair
- Lacy Rand
- Lexon / Dex
- Sagittaron Recruit
- Cadet Recruit No. 1
- STO Guard
- Gara Singh, covert operative in the Global Defense Department (also known as Alvo)
- Scruffy Dude
- STO Martyr No. 1
- STO Martyr No. 2
- STO Martyr No. 3
Monotheists put their index fingers in the middle of their foreheads to signify to other members of their faith that they are Monotheists. ("Pilot")
Earlier in the series, Monotheism and Soldiers of the One were confused as one in the same although they are not. Jane Espenson commented on this,
"We wanted to make a lot of effort to make really clear what the STO is, what its goals are, and how it fits into the larger Monotheist Church. Because we were finding that we were even getting confused in the writers room, that we were using the words 'monotheist' and 'STO' interchangeably, and they're not." 
- "One True God?." Caprica: Season 1.5, created by Ronald D. Moore and Remi Aubuchon, special feature, interview with Brian Markinson, Syfy, 2010, disc two.
- "One True God?." Caprica: Season 1.5, created by Ronald D. Moore and Remi Aubuchon, special feature, Jane Espenson's commentary, Syfy, 2010, disc two, 08:52-09:10.