Two thousand years ago, a disaster on the planet Kobol forced the Twelve Tribes to flee in search of a new home.  They traveled two-thousand light years to the Cyrannus Star System - a unique solar system with four stars. Each tribe colonized a planet, and became known as the Twelve Colonies. 
- Main article: Aerilon
Sharing an orbit with the planets Canceron and Hestia, Aerilon is located at the gas giant's L4 libration point. Most of the planet's land mass is within the temperate zone and the mild climate and moderate precipitation make its rolling hills and prairies ideal for farming and grazing. Aerilonians tends to be poor and relatively uneducated with a reputation as hard workers and plain speakers. This notion of self-reliance runs deep on Aerilon, where the government does not provide social services or tolerate political dissension. 
- Main article: Aquaria
Aquaria is a frigid ocean world with only one major land mass: Kyros, a crescent-shaped continent with volcanoes at both ends. Founded as a scientific research outpost, this remote world has also attracted a small but sturdy population known for stubborn independence, social tolerance and a unique barter system. However, the population can swell to as many as one half million during the annual Kyros Summerfest, which features music, dance, theater and epic poetry. 
- Main article: Canceron
Located at Hestia's L5 point, Canceron is the most populous of the Twelve Colonies with eighty-eight states represented in its planetary Congress. (Canceron has proudly maintained its status as a constitutional democracy for more than one-thousand years.) The world is known for the wealth and diversity of its people. Canceron's cities and resorts offer something for everyone: sunny southern beaches, snow-capped northern mountains and of course the legendary casinos of Psammos. Canceron is also blessed with farmland that is among the most fertile in the colonies, as well as rich mineral deposits. 
- Main article: Caprica (planet)
The lush and beautiful world of Caprica was largely undeveloped for centuries, but it is now the undisputed center of colonial politics, culture, art and education. Its oceanfront capital, Caprica City, is an architectural marvel that is home to more than seven million residents. Caprica is also known as the melting pot of the colonies with thousands of immigrants and visitors arriving around the clock from every corner of the Four Systems. 
- Main article: Gemenon (planet)
Gemenon is in the third orbit around the Helios Alpha star and shares its orbit with the planet Caprica. They revolve around their common barycenter, or center-of-gravity, with an orbital period of 28.2 days. The distance between Caprica and Gemenon is four-hundred and ninety-three thousand kilometers. 
- Main article: Kobol
The planet, Kobol, is the origin point for all humanity. The first exodus from Kobol took place two thousand years before the present day (42YR). The inhabitants were forced to abandon their home after a disaster of unknown origin.
- Main article: Leonis
Leonis has always been a major center of education and industry and, despite the gradual integration of the colonies, it has maintained its own distinctive language and culture. With almost no axial tilt, the planet is blessed with a mild and predictable climate, which means spectacular beaches and year-round ski slopes. Not surprisingly, Leonan food and wine are considered among the best in the colonies. Despite historical clashes on Picon and other colonies worldwide, Leonis is now on relatively good terms with its neighbor Virgon. 
- Main article: Libran
The dense jungles and hot, stormy climate of Libran make it an unlikely candidate for colonization; and for centuries it remained a largely uninhabited wilderness preserve. It was therefore surprising to many when the planet was chosen as the home of the Inter-Colonial Court, which tries all cases that fall across colony lines. Its only large city, Themis, hosts several major universities and law schools as well as a state-of-the-art arena, although it has been unable to attract a pyramid franchise. 
- Main article: Picon
The surface of Picon is over seventy-five percent water, but, unlike Aquaria, its climate is temperate (at least during the summer months) and its seas support an abundance of aquatic life. Once governed by Virgon, Picon is now one of the more socially progressive colonies, providing health care and affordable housing to all citizens. The populace is affluent and educated with an enviably low crime rate. Picon's capital, Queenstown, started out as a fishing village and now supports a thriving entertainment industry that rivals Caprica's. 
- Main article: Sagittaron
The barren, mountainous world of Sagittaron endured centuries of exploitation by the other colonies and, perhaps as a result, its inhabitants are still quite poor and have been slow to embrace modern science and technology. Because of their religious beliefs, many Sagittarons eschew medical treatments in favor of folk remedies. Public displays of affection, as well as singing and dancing, are banned by law, although visitors will find the capital, Tawa, a bit more tolerant than the isolated mountain valleys. 
- Main article: Scorpia
A world of untamed tropical jungles punctuated by rugged mountain ranges, Scorpia is a popular vacation destination for the other colonies. Its inhabitants, though pious and family-oriented, are known for their religious tolerance and accommodating nature. Tourism is one of the planet's major industries. 
- Main article: Tauron (Planet)
One of the largest and wealthiest colonies, Tauron regained its independence from Virgon and Leonis eight-hundred and fifty years ago; and fought a bloody civil war three decades ago when Ha'la'tha resistance fighters attacked the governing Heraclitus regime. Known for its rocky, reddish soil, Tauron's chief industries are farming and livestock, and its oldest city, Minos, was once located on a cattle trail. Tauron is also a major center of industry and technology as well as the home of the Ha'la'tha crime syndicate (formed by former resistance fighters), which has spread throughout the colonies. 
- Main article: Virgon
Also called "The Blue Colony" because of its oceans and blue-tinted plant life, Virgon was the birthplace of colonial language and culture; and its capital, Boskirk, was the first city of the colonies for nearly a thousand years. However, a long and costly war between Virgon and its neighbor Leonis led to the Virgon Empire's gradual decline and paved the way for the rise of Caprica. Virgon is the only remaining monarchy in the colonies, although the Royal Family's role is largely ceremonial and day-to-day administration is carried out by the planetary parliament. 
- ↑ Ruditis, Paul. "Battlestar Galactica Vault, The Complete History of the Series 1978-2012." Sterling New York, 2014, p. 149.
- ↑ Mandel, Geoffrey. "The Twelve Colonies of Kobol" map. Technical Advisors Jane Espenson and Kevin R. Grazier, special thanks to Bob Harris, author of "Beyond Caprica: A Visitors Guide to the Twelve Colonies," Quantum Mechanix, 2010.
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 Mandel, Ibid.
- ↑ Ruditis, Ibid.